Cider Vinegar and Spirits. Cooking with Cider. From Juice to Bottle. Tasting and Evaluating Cider. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England". The UK is the major producer of cider in the EU and has enjoyed a renaissance in the 21st century, with a greater diversity of producers, brands and consumers than ever before.
Since the early Roman era, dessert and cider apples had been spreading out of the Mediterranean and naturally would have eventually been brought to Gaul, a province of the Roman Empire after the defeat of Vercingetorix in 46 BC by Caesar , and Franconia , parts of which would have formed Magna Germania. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome, consisting of large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, North Africa and West Asia ruled by emperors.
From the accession of Caesar Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, it was a principate with Italy as metropole of the provinces and its city of Rome as sole capital. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until AD, when it sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople following the capture of Ravenna by the barbarians of Odoacer and the subsequent deposition of Romulus Augustus.
Vercingetorix was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Gaius Julius Caesar , known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar , was a populist Roman dictator, politician, military general, and historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
He also wrote Latin prose. Much later the northern part of Gaul, heavily populated by a mix of Gauls, Romans, and other Celts, became Normandy and the domain of the lords that grew apples on their fiefdoms. Normandy is the northwesternmost of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Saxon chronicles [ which? Though it is unknown if there is any relation between the ancient drink and the modern German product, at least one account indicates the drink was a luxury item that only the wealthy could afford. There is also evidence from the mid-late Anglo-Saxon period of the growth of orchards before, during, and after Christianisation of this group and their ceremonial use, most famously the custom of Wassail at Yuletide, and it is known that monks grew apples in their gardens.
There is also more recent evidence that indicates that the Romans were growing apples and pears in their stay in Britain, and one of the Vindolanda tablets indicates that the largely Asturian-derived guardsmen near Hadrian's Wall , men with an apple and cider culture predating their own conquest by Rome, were seeking the best apples that could be found locally. The Vindolanda tablets were, at the time of their discovery, the oldest surviving handwritten documents in Britain.
They are a rich source of information about life on the northern frontier of Roman Britain. Written on fragments of thin, post-card sized wooden leaf-tablets with carbon-based ink, the tablets date to the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Although similar records on papyrus were known from elsewhere in the Roman Empire, wooden tablets with ink text had not been recovered until , when archaeologist Robin Birley, his attention being drawn by student excavator Keith Liddell, discovered some at the site of Vindolanda, a Roman fort in northern England.
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It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts. One scholar, Professor Christine Fell, posits that a drink served was an apple-based alcohol using honey as a sweetener and extra fermentation agent and served in small cups that are often found in Saxon burials with the dead.
Further final evidence from an archaeological dig in Gloucester in suggests that crab apples, in addition to their traditional use as a foodstuff, were also being pressed into an alcohol sweetened with honey. Increased planting of apple trees began in earnest as soon as the feudal system introduced by William of Normandy could be secured, and continued down over what is becoming close to a thousand years.
Not all of the apples in the UK have ever been grown solely for dessert purposes, and indeed in British cookery the distinction between cider apples , cooking apples , and dessert apples has remained intact since before the Tudors and spread wherever the British colonized, with some blurring of lines in North America due to necessity and scarcity. In , John Worlidge wrote his Vinetum Brittanicum , a treatise on the production and processing of apples  that gives great insight into how little the method has changed in years.
Worlidge was writing at a time in which some of the earliest written intact horticulture tracts were being produced in Britain, alongside cookbooks.
Both advocate for proper storage of the apples, told which were the correct ones to use for cooking and for drinking, and in the case of Worlidge, advocated the new technique of fermentation in bottles, something that had come into vogue in the s when glass was first strengthened with coke. In an appendix was added to John Evelyn 's previous publication of , Sylva. This newly added appendix was named "Pomona: concerning fruit-trees in relation to cider, the making and several ways of ordering it". It is one of the first English cider essays consisting of contributions from several other authors, notably a Dr Beale of Yeovil, as well as Evelyn himself.
In the present day, the United Kingdom drinks the most cider in the world. It is very common to find in on tap in pubs and at the local off-license as well as available from smaller labels. Cider is available in sweet, medium and dry varieties. Recent years have seen a significant increase in cider sales in the UK. There are two broad main traditions in cider production in the UK: the West Country tradition and the eastern Kent and East Anglia tradition. The former are made using a much higher percentage of true cider apples and so are richer in tannins and sharper in flavour.
They tend to be clearer, more vinous and lighter in body and flavour. At one end of the scale are the traditional, small farm -produced varieties. These are non-carbonated and usually cloudy orange in appearance. Britain's West Country contains many of these farms which have an abundance of ancient varieties of specialist cider-apples. Production is often on such a small scale, the product being sold only at the site of manufacture or in local pubs and shops. Mass-produced cider, such as that produced by Bulmers , is likely to be pasteurised and force-carbonated.
The colour is likely to be golden yellow with a clear appearance from the filtration. White ciders are almost colourless in appearance. White cider is made from pomace , the dry apple pulp left over after juicing, and the final product is almost colourless. A key market segment exists in the UK for strong mass-produced cider at 7. Cider with higher than 7. This makes white cider at the lower duty level the cheapest form of commonly available alcohol in the UK, both to buy and to produce. Before , brands could be labelled at up to 8.
Scottish Courage , which owned the brand, decided that year to restrict bottle size to 2 litres as part of its responsible drinking strategy. A spokesman for the company spoke of white cider in general, "It is the cheapest way to buy alcohol in the UK. This is pocket money these days. There is no other alcohol category that has the same challenge as white cider.
Other manufacturers followed by increasing prices and scrapping their 3-litre bottles. Richly informative and entertaining, Cider, Hard and Sweet is your go-to source for everything related to apples, cider, and ciderm aking.
contgunekefapc.ga It includes great information on apple varieties, cidermaking basics, barrel fermentation, and recipes for cooking with cider-with instructions for making boiled cider and cider jelly, and recipes for dishes with cider braises and marinades. It also teaches readers how to recognize a good cider and takes you from buying store-bought to making the genuine article at home.
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When fermentation slows, let the yeast and sediment settle to the bottom of the bucket for about a week and then rack the cider to a glass carboy. Cooking in Cider was even a common unit of exchange. Take one of our courses! The main difference between sparkling and effervescent ciders is the clarify and brilliance of the former, from removal of spent yeasts and other residues. I always strive to achieve best customer satisfaction and have always described book accurately. You are commenting using your WordPress.
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