Introducing those power relations in research on the subject is an original approach that helps explain the extent to which individualities and loyalty-based relationships contributed to determining the globalisation of engineering science in the early modern age. London, British Museum. Gameboard with squares numbered from 1 to Winning the support of a protector was an imperative at least as important incumbent upon anyone seeking a position in court, and engineers were no exception.
The book was widely circulated in its day3 and, not coincidentally, was read by the aforementioned Alonso de Barros4.
The decisive battle of Pavia , which had taken place just a few years before Il Cortigiano was published, was followed by a succession of military campaigns in the Mediterranean and Europe that ushered in substantial technical changes in military art and fortification science7. The War of Siena was a turning point in that atmosphere of experimentation in military art and science, given the participation of renowned men of arms and engineers, some of whom would later spur new experiences in fortification engineering in Europe or write treatises that served as references throughout the sixteenth century.
At the same time, power was in constant need of the services of engineers, professionals who necessarily had to combine science with the experience of war Nonetheless, Botero qualified the depth of knowl-. The prince would never be expected to know as much about these subjects as engineers, however, as that was why he had such professionals at his service to design and build fortresses, erect bridges and make war machines These ideas were both prevalent in contemporary theory and widely popular.
That the foundations of an empire rested on knowledge and science was something of which Philip II was acutely aware. But in addition to having a knowledge of science, the Prudent King was aware of the need for professionals such as architects and engineers to ensure the defence and conservation of his kingdoms. That need led him to foster such ambitious projects as the Mathematics Academy He went on to list the experts whose professions were based on mathematics: geometers, astronomers, cosmographers, pilots, architects and fortifiers, engineers and machine builders, artillery technicians, sundial makers, musicians, perspective draughtsmen, painters and sculptors.
By including the last few disciplines, Herrera established the scientific status of professions that art history has long associated with beauty, not science, an approach that is in need of in-depth revision. The Mathematics Academy was designed, then, to convey the sciences and arts to princes and professionals, engineers among them, but also geometers, architects and cosmographers, whose skills were often subsumed into the profession practised by those awarded the title of engineer by the king.
In other words, the main purpose of the Mathematics Academy, as Juan de Herrera eloquently claimed in the first few lines of his Institucion, was to train people called upon to render the services needed for political life, i. Science was noth-.
Late sixteenth century voices contemporary with the creation of the Mathematics Academy called for the foundation of technical schools to palliate the paucity of architects and engineers. That aptitude made them ideal for erecting not only fortifications and all the constituent buildings, from barracks to churches, but also other types of buildings and public infrastructures such as bridges and border stations, which also represented political power.
Given their knowledge of construction, engineers were often also called upon to build palaces and gardens for a nobility that hired them indistinctly in times of peace and of war. Whilst engineers could do the work performed by what today are known as architects, the reverse was less true, for not all architects were familiar with the applied geometry required to design fortifications, nor did they have war experience.
The relationship between architecture and engineering was aptly synthesised by Botero, who wrote that. In a nutshell, although Francisco de Mora would be unable to build a war machine able to resist an enemy army, he would know how to portray the image of power that a fortification should convey to anyone approaching its gates. Whilst in their surviving writings engineers frequently deemed themselves to be the creatures or making of their masters, the historical record also shows that they were held in esteem by those patrons.
At times governors and warlords placed all their trust in an engineer: Juan de Austria in Scipion Campi and Cardinal Granvela in Gabrio Serbelloni, an engineer so famous that his name appears in Don Quixote.
Moreover, engineers such as Spannocchi and Serbelloni were of gentle birth like. In anticipation of something to be discussed later, his case attests to the importance attached to his Spanish origin and to the fact that he had written a book on fortifications in that language Engineering under the Spanish crown had two notorious shortcomings: a paucity of Spanish national engineers and a very thin theoretical corpus in a language that prevailed in Europe but not in scientific and technical texts.
The portraits conserved of some Spanish engineers convey the same desire to be remembered in history as the treatises in which they appeared. On occasion they shared an understanding and experience of war, for some princes and governors had engineering expertise: members of the illustrious Gonzaga or Alba lineages or the Constables of Castile, not to mention Philip II himself and governors such as the Count of Fuentes in Milan. The third marquis, in turn, has been assumed to be the author of Escuela de Palas, published in Milan and attributed both to him and to the engineer Chafrion, although Tosca takes it for granted that it was written by the latter.
Milan, Imprenta Real, Engraving preceding the title page. The debate around the authorship is not a minor issue in this book, which addresses the power relations between noblemen and engineers. The treatise at issue explains all the fortification systems used from the sixteenth century on, putting in print what in other scientific contexts was limited to a splendid collection of wooden scale models of the various systems, such as the one conserved in Palazzo Poggi in Bologna. The engraving on its cover [FIG. Although for many years that was not always so, it did apply to those aspiring to be captains general of the artillery, such as Benedetto da Ravenna.
According to present knowledge, the problem of loyalty, outside the question of espionage or even treason proven to have been committed by some engineers42, only began to be associated with place of origin in the late sixteenth century It can be attributed to Spanish engineers resentful of the preference accorded their Italian or Flemish colleagues. Historical records, some unknown until now, confirm the seventeenth century preference for native Spanish engineers, although the services of Italian and Flemish engineers, also loyal to the Spanish crown, had still to be enlisted, given the circumstances.
As mentioned earlier, the author of El Cortesano explained that territorial mapping was an imperative for war.
That information was normally furnished by engineers, one of whom, knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem Tiburzio Spannocchi, trained mathematician, scientific draughtsman and painter, capitalised on this talent for drawing to become engineer major of the kingdoms of Spain. The need in those two centuries to produce atlases showing the major fortified cities was associated with the lords to whom they were dedicated or who had commissioned them and who appreciated them not only for their utility in war, but for the beauty that prompted their inclusion in collections and libraries.
Such atlases and the thousands of maps custodied in European archives were not the sole expression of the importance of drawing for engineering, however In a professional was sought within its military academy and chair to be sent to Sicily in response to an urgent request from the Prince of Ligne, inasmuch as reputed engineer Gaspare Beretta was too old and his presence in Milan too necessary for him to travel.
In times of peace, the artifices and machines that carried water to gardens and fountains could also create a world of wonders in courtier and festive environments. In warfare in turn, engineers were appreciated not only for being able to describe lands, design fortifications or propose the logistics for moving armies. In the early sixteenth century Luca Pacioli contended that the experience of war, which made the profession dangerous while turning engineers into fellows in arms with eminent generals, had to go hand-in-hand with science.
The necessarily dual perspective adopted in this book, which deals both with engineers and their patrons, leads to the realisation that those two actors, indispensable to any martial activity, shared knowledge. According to it, a good captain had to know mathematics, arithmetic and cosmography. But equally relevant in this respect are the portraits of engineers whose science and experience brought them military success and even ennoblement if not so endowed by birth in a. BURKE, It contained titles, many of which on political theory, philosophy and moral instruction. Extensive literature exists on this scientific institution founded by Philip II.
It includes a treatise on fortification, p. BNE, Ms. AGS, Guerra y Marina, leg. The exact reasons for this mistaken identification of the second portrait are unknown, for Barcia , p. That circumstance may have led to the attribution of the portrait of the author to its intended reader.
He also had a very close relationship with Jesuit and fortification expert Francisco Antonio Camassa. The authors thank J.
Corporate Lifestyle Simulator. Military stratagems and warnings. But having all this I would like to have the greater honour and please Monseigneur more than for the advantage that it could offer to send with it two or three texts that I put on some maps like of Germany, Spain and Savoy so that Monseigneur can order another suitable one to serve for the map of Burgundy without which the map would be dull. In Celebration of Violence. Run with the following command: "SanctumGame-WinShipping. The Duke was interested in this discipline throughout his life and many architects asked him for protection or work opportunities: these included Giacinto Barozzi, Giovanni Boscoli, Gennaro Bresciani, Lorenzo Pomarelli and many others present in the Epistolario scelto of the Parma Archive.
BURY, , p. LEYDI, , p.
AGS, Estado, leg. AGS, Estado, , fols. Con tres libros de las causas de la grandeza, y magnificencia de las ciudades de Iuan Botero. Mateuad y Onofre Anglada.
BURY, J. Fernando, vol. HER coord. BNE, Mss. Calatrava trad. Arquitectura Militar. The armoury square in the citadel at Antwerp was the venue, on 19 May , for the unveiling of a statue of the third Duke of Alba. British Museum.
Despite its peace-making intentions, imbued as it was with the belligerent notion of auctoritas, the statue was identified as a token of tyranny and satirised in prints circulated by the Flemish rebels. The symbolic appropriation of military space, emulating Italian precedents such as the equestrian statue of Francesco Sforza at Milan castle designed by Leonardo for Ludovico il Moro, whose clay model was destroyed by French troops , was the culmination of the controversy around the political aim of urban fortresses, mirrored in the institutional complexities and patronage relationships to which construction was subject.
Further to that programme, governess Margarita de Parma undertook works in several cities and sent local engineer Jacques Van Noyen and her court engineer Francesco de Marchi to Antwerp to choose the site and draft the initial design. The design authored by Paciotto who soon returned to Italy followed a standard pentagonal ground plan enclosed in a circle he had applied at Torino. That approach was the object of further criticism that ultimately led to changes, although the site chosen on the grounds of political criteria was retained3.
I can ensure Y. I was not happy about the parapets; the ditches are dug, but not as deeply as they should be in some areas, although little needs to be added width-wise, around twenty feet or less. I also ordered the entrances be roofed and moats dug parallel to the counterscarp.